You know, one of the best things about being part of this dynamic, ever-evolving field of education is that we are always discovering and experimenting with innovative teaching strategies to support our students’ learning journey. It’s this passion for pedagogical exploration that I’ve always tried to bring to you in my blog posts, and today is no exception.
Do you remember that sense of awe when you discovered a concept or tool that just seemed to ‘click’ in your classroom? How it seemed to mesh perfectly with your teaching style and your students’ learning needs? That’s the excitement I’m feeling right now as I’m about to introduce you to a fantastic teaching tool – the KWL Chart.
Don’t worry if you haven’t heard of it before, or if you’ve heard of it but haven’t quite wrapped your head around it. That’s why we’re here. We’re going to dissect what a KWL Chart is, dive into the science and pedagogy behind it, illustrate it with classroom examples, and yes, even offer some free printable KWL templates exclusively for our dear subscribers.
Table of Contents
What is a KWL Chart?The Pedagogy and Science Behind KWL ChartsA. Incorporation of Constructivist Learning TheoriesB. Catering to Different Learning StylesC. Enhancing Student Engagement and ParticipationD. Facilitating Self-Directed LearningExamples of KWL Chart Use in the ClassroomA. Lower Elementary School Example: Animals UnitB. Upper Elementary School Example: Geography UnitC. Middle School Example: Literature UnitD. High School Example: Mathematics UnitTips for Implementing KWL Charts in Your ClassroomA. Suggestions for Introducing KWL Charts to StudentsB. Strategies for Guiding Students Through Each Section of the KWL ChartC. Ideas for Incorporating KWL Charts into Lesson PlansD. Tips for Adapting KWL Charts for Different Subjects and Grade LevelsFree Printable KWL Chart Templates for SubscribersReferences and Further Reading
What is a KWL Chart?
A KWL chart is a dynamic, interactive teaching tool designed to promote active learning, critical thinking, and student engagement. The acronym KWL stands for ‘Know’, ‘Want to Know’, and ‘Learned’, which neatly summarize the three stages of using this instructional strategy.
The KWL chart is visually represented as a three-column table where each column corresponds to each step of the learning process. And now, let’s dig a little deeper into what each of these sections means:
The first column, “Know,” is where students are invited to reflect on and share what they already know about the topic at hand. This step is crucial as it serves to activate students’ prior knowledge, laying the groundwork for the learning to come.
It is an opportunity for the teacher to gauge students’ current understanding and address any misconceptions early on. It also fosters a sense of ownership and engagement as students see their own knowledge acknowledged and valued.
B. Want to Know
Moving on to the second column, “Want to Know,” is where the real sparks of inquiry begin to fly. Here, students pose questions about what they want to learn or are curious about related to the topic. These can range from simple fact-based questions to more complex, open-ended ones.
This step is vital in promoting curiosity and setting learning goals. It encourages students to take responsibility for their learning process and become active participants, rather than passive recipients.
Last but not least, we have the third column, “Learned”. This is where students record new knowledge or skills they have acquired after the lesson or activity. This is an essential part of reflection and assessment.
Here, students consolidate their learning, reflect on the initial questions they had, and even identify new areas of curiosity. This step serves to reinforce learning and encourages students to reflect on their learning journey.
It is important to note here that the KWL chart isn’t just a neat table to fill in. It is a powerful tool that facilitates a cyclical, student-centered approach to learning, embodying the spirit of inquiry, self-direction, and reflection that are hallmarks of an engaged, 21st-century classroom.
The Pedagogy and Science Behind KWL Charts
Teaching is both an art and a science. It’s an art because it requires creativity, intuition, and a deep understanding of human emotions. It’s a science because it’s grounded in well-established theories of cognition and learning. This delicate blend of art and science is perfectly embodied in the KWL chart. Let’s dive into why that is.
A. Incorporation of Constructivist Learning Theories
The KWL chart finds its roots in constructivist learning theories. As champions of constructivism, we know that learning is not a passive absorption of information. Instead, students construct knowledge actively, integrating new information with what they already know. The ‘Know’ column of the KWL chart sparks this process, activating students’ prior knowledge and forming a bridge to new learning.
B. Catering to Different Learning Styles
In line with Howard Gardner’s theory of Multiple Intelligences, KWL charts cater to a variety of learning styles. For instance, linguistic learners can benefit from discussing and writing down their thoughts, logical-mathematical learners can enjoy the structured format, and interpersonal learners can thrive in the collaborative brainstorming that the KWL chart promotes. The visual layout of the chart can also benefit spatial learners.
C. Enhancing Student Engagement and Participation
Student engagement is the fuel that drives the learning process, and KWL charts are a high-octane blend. They help to foster an active learning environment where students are not just passive receivers of information. Instead, they are prompted to engage with their learning actively, ask questions, make connections, and reflect on their learning. This participatory nature of KWL charts creates a more inclusive classroom, giving every student a voice.
D. Facilitating Self-Directed Learning
Educators today know the importance of fostering self-directed learners. We strive to create environments where students take charge of their learning, set their goals, and reflect on their progress. The ‘Want to Know’ and ‘Learned’ columns of the KWL chart perfectly facilitate this. They encourage students to set their learning objectives and later reflect on what they have learned, fostering a habit of self-direction and metacognition.
So, as you see, the KWL chart is more than just a simple graphic organizer. It’s a powerful manifestation of modern pedagogical theories and principles. KWL has the potential to create engaging, inclusive, and self-directed learning experiences that cater to the diverse needs and learning styles of our students.
Examples of KWL Chart Use in the Classroom
As teachers and educators, we appreciate the power of concrete examples, the potent alchemy of seeing pedagogical theory transform into vibrant practice. Countless teachers are already harnessing the benefits of KWL charts, effectively integrating them into a plethora of classroom contexts.
Reflecting on my own teaching journey, I fondly remember employing KWL charts in my high school English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classroom, blending them into diverse language learning tasks.
My personal favorite was utilizing KWL charts to enhance vocabulary learning – it was a joy to witness students embarking on self-directed lexical explorations, driven by their curiosity and active engagement.
To better illustrate the use of KWL in classroom instruction, let’s consider a few examples inspired by actual classrooms:
A. Lower Elementary School Example: Animals Unit
At the start of a unit on animals, students in a 1st-grade classroom might use a KWL chart as follows:
Know: Students might list animals they already know, perhaps mentioning their favorite animals or pets they have at home. They might share simple facts, like “Dogs bark” or “Cats have fur.”
Want to Know: Students might express curiosity about various animal habits or habitats, such as “Why do birds fly south for the winter?” or “How do dolphins breathe underwater?”
Learned: After exploring the unit, students might fill in this column with facts and concepts they have learned, like “Some animals hibernate in the winter” or “Dolphins breathe using a blowhole on top of their heads.”
B. Upper Elementary School Example: Geography Unit
For a unit on geography in a 4th-grade classroom, a KWL chart might look like this:
Know: Students might share general knowledge about world geography, like “The Nile is a long river” or “The Sahara is a desert.”
Want to Know: Students might question certain aspects of geography, such as “What makes a desert a desert?” or “Why is the Nile River so important to Egypt?”
Learned: After the unit, students could share their newfound knowledge, like “A desert is defined by its lack of precipitation” or “The Nile River provided the necessary water and fertile soil for civilizations to flourish in Ancient Egypt.”
C. Middle School Example: Literature Unit
During a literature unit on “The Giver” by Lois Lowry in an 8th-grade class, a KWL chart might unfold as follows:
Know: Students could list elements they understand about dystopian literature or share their thoughts on other Lois Lowry books they have read.
Want to Know: Students might be curious about various aspects of the book, such as “How does the society in ‘The Giver’ control its citizens?” or “What themes does the author explore?”
Learned: Post-reading, students might express understanding about the themes, plot, or societal structure in the book, like “The society in ‘The Giver’ controls its citizens through strict rules and manipulation of memories” or “One of the main themes in the book is the importance of individual freedom.”
D. High School Example: Mathematics Unit
During a unit on trigonometry in a 10th-grade class, the KWL chart might go like this:
Know: Students might share their current understanding of basic mathematical concepts that are prerequisites for understanding trigonometry, such as angles or the Pythagorean theorem.
Want to Know: Students might express what they want to know about trigonometry, like “How is trigonometry used in real-world applications?” or “What are sine, cosine, and tangent?”
Learned: After the unit, students could share the new concepts they have mastered, such as “Trigonometry is used in fields like physics, engineering, and computer science” or “Sine, cosine, and tangent are functions that relate the angles of a triangle to the lengths of its sides.”
These examples illustrate how versatile the KWL chart is. It can adapt to any subject matter and be tailored to suit the cognitive level of any grade, making it an invaluable tool in your teaching toolkit.
Tips for Implementing KWL Charts in Your Classroom
It’s one thing to know about a pedagogical tool, but quite another to put it to practical use. How do we translate the theory of KWL charts into dynamic classroom practice? Let’s delve into some actionable strategies.
A. Suggestions for Introducing KWL Charts to Students
Kick-start your KWL journey by having a candid classroom conversation. Explain the purpose of KWL charts and how they can help streamline learning. Use an example related to a topic they’re familiar with to demonstrate the KWL process. Display a large, blank KWL chart and fill it out collaboratively as a class. This visual, interactive introduction will give students a clear understanding of how the tool works.
B. Strategies for Guiding Students Through Each Section of the KWL Chart
Know: Encourage students to think about and share what they already know about the topic. Remind them it’s okay to know little or a lot – the goal here is to activate prior knowledge.
Want to Know: Foster a culture of inquiry where students feel comfortable asking questions. You might use prompts to stimulate thinking, like “What are you curious about?” or “What do you hope to learn?”
Learned: At the end of the unit, guide students in reflecting on their initial questions and newly acquired knowledge. Discuss how their learning might have reshaped their initial understanding or generated new questions.
C. Ideas for Incorporating KWL Charts into Lesson Plans
Pre-assessment: Use the KWL chart at the start of a new unit to gauge students’ prior knowledge and interests. It can guide you in tailoring your lesson plans to match their needs.
During the Unit: Periodically revisit the KWL chart to add new questions or insights, keeping the learning process dynamic and engaging.
Post-assessment: After the unit, use the chart to reflect on learning outcomes. It not only reinforces new knowledge but also promotes meta-cognition by helping students understand how they learn.
D. Tips for Adapting KWL Charts for Different Subjects and Grade Levels
For Younger Students: Use more visuals and fewer words. The chart can be filled with drawings, stickers, or cut-outs from magazines.
For Older Students: Encourage them to create their own individual KWL charts, fostering autonomy and personalizing learning.
Across Subjects: KWL charts are versatile. In science, they can explore theories; in literature, they can delve into plotlines or character development; in social studies, they can probe historical events or societal phenomena.
Keep in mind that KWL charts are flexible, so don’t hesitate to modify them according to your classroom dynamics and students’ needs. The ultimate aim is to foster an environment where students are active participants in their learning journey, and KWL charts are a fantastic tool to facilitate this process.
Free Printable KWL Chart Templates for Subscribers
As an edtech blogger and a fellow educator, I’m well aware that ready-to-use resources can save us precious time and boost our teaching effectiveness. That’s why I’ve come up with a special offer exclusively for my subscribers: Free Printable KWL Templates!
I’ve designed a set of vibrant and user-friendly KWL templates using Canva. These templates are flexible, engaging, and most importantly, easy to implement in your classrooms. All you need to do is print them out, and they’re ready for your students to explore. They are my way of expressing gratitude for your continued support and active engagement on my blog.
The templates are created with a range of needs and preferences in mind. Some are minimalist and straightforward, perfect for upper-grade students who might prefer a clean, focused layout. Others incorporate more colors and visuals, catering to lower-grade students who might find a graphic-rich chart more engaging.
To access these printable KWL Chart templates, subscribers simply need to click on the link provided in my latest newsletter. This link will take you directly to the downloadable and printable KWL templates.
If you haven’t subscribed to my newsletter, please click here to subscribe and get access to exclusive EdTech content including these printable KWL charts.
References and Further Reading
For those of you who wish to delve deeper into the pedagogical underpinnings and practical applications of KWL charts, here’s a collection of references and suggested readings to guide you on your quest.
A. References Cited in the Blog Post
Ogle, D. (1986). K-W-L: A teaching model that develops active reading of expository text. The Reading Teacher, 39(6), 564-570.
Carr, E., & Ogle, D. (1987). KWL Plus: A strategy for comprehension and summarization. Journal of Reading, 30(7), 626-631.
An Investigation of Self-Directed Learning Skills of Undergraduate Students, Frontiers.org
Panjaitan, N & Situmorang, R. The Effectiveness Of K-W-L Technique To Increase Students’ Reading Comprehension Achievement Through Reading Descriptive Text For Grade 8 of SMP Negeri 1 Cisarua
University at Buffalo, Constructivism, Creating experiences that facilitate the construction of knowledge
B. Suggestions for Further Reading on KWL Charts and Their Use in Education
Kim, A. (2012). Teaching strategies: The value of KWL charts. TeachHUB.com. [This article offers a wealth of strategies and tips on using KWL charts effectively in classrooms.]
Barell, J. (2007). Problem-based learning: An inquiry approach. Corwin Press. [This book delves deeper into inquiry-based learning and provides numerous examples of KWL charts in practice.]
Manzo, A. V., & Manzo, U. C. (1995). Teaching children to be literate: A reflective approach. Harcourt Brace College Publishers. [This book includes a detailed discussion on KWL charts as a literacy tool.]
Harvey, S., & Goudvis, A. (2007). Strategies that work: Teaching comprehension for understanding and engagement. Stenhouse Publishers. [This book explores various strategies, including KWL charts, that enhance students’ reading comprehension skills.
Zimmerman, S., & Hutchins, C. (2003). 7 Keys to Comprehension: How to Help Your Kids Read It and Get It!. Three Rivers Press. [This book offers a wide array of strategies, including KWL charts, to boost reading comprehension.]
Taberski, S. (2000). On Solid Ground : Strategies for Teaching Reading K-3. Heinemann. [This book provides various examples of using KWL charts in early elementary grades.]
Tomlinson, C. A. (2001). How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed-Ability Classrooms. ASCD. [This book discusses how to use tools like KWL charts to differentiate instruction for students with different learning abilities.]
Daniels, H., Zemelman, S., & Steineke, N. (2007). Content-Area Writing: Every Teacher’s Guide. Heinemann. [This book includes a discussion on how KWL charts can support writing across different subjects.]
Zemelman, S., Daniels, H., & Hyde, A. (2012). Best Practice: Bringing Standards to Life in America’s Classrooms. Heinemann. [This book offers a comprehensive look at best practices in American classrooms, including the use of KWL charts.