Teaching sight words is the topic of this blog post. Through research-backed insights, this post will unpack the multifaceted world of sight words, demystifying their role in early literacy development and providing practical, effective strategies to enhance learning outcomes.

So, what exactly are sight words? We’ll dive into their definition, shedding light on these common yet sometimes misunderstood elements of the English language. Contrary to popular belief, sight words aren’t just learned by sight. We’ll examine the cognitive processes at play when children learn these vital words, challenging some preconceptions along the way.

Moreover, this post offers a trove of tips for learners embarking on their sight words journey. But as we all know, absorbing new information isn’t just about repetition—it’s about engagement, context, and fun! Therefore, we’ll introduce you to some exciting instructional strategies and activities designed to make sight words stick.

Drawing on a rich body of research, we’ll highlight effective methods for teaching sight words, from the strategic use of flashcards to the art of creating a unique early reading vocabulary for each learner. These methods aren’t one-size-fits-all—they respect each learner’s unique pace and level of word knowledge.

Whether you’re an educator, parent, or someone interested in literacy development, this post aims to provide you with the necessary tools and understanding to help your young readers flourish.

What are sight words?

According to Murray et al. (2019)[1] and several other researchers (e.g., Ehri, 1998[2]; Just & Carpenter, 1987[3] referenced in Murray et al.) the term “sight word” carries two distinct interpretations that inform different teaching methods.

The more common interpretation is that sight words are high-frequency words, often irregularly spelled, which are assumed to resist typical decoding methods. This understanding, according to Murray et al., posits that sight words are learned through the memorization of their spellings, achieved via methods such as repetitive exposure in texts, flashcard drills, or recitation of spellings. Yet, this whole-word memorization approach can be time-consuming and labor-intensive, necessitating approximately 35 trials per word for readers of average intelligence.

The second interpretation of sight words, as Murray et al. explained, is broader: any word read automatically, irrespective of its frequency or regularity. This perspective underscores that proficient readers can come to recognize any word as a sight word, sidestepping the need for rote memorization. The automatic recognition of sight words facilitates smoother reading, enhancing comprehension as it enables readers to concentrate on understanding the text’s meaning rather than decoding individual words. This rapid recognition—occurring in about 250 milliseconds—is so swift that it bypasses the decoding process, allowing words to seem to jump from the page to the reader’s mind effortlessly.

A simpler definition of sight words might read something like this: sight words are common words that children are encouraged to recognize instantly, without having to decode them. These words often do not follow regular phonetic patterns and cannot be easily sounded out. They make up a large part of any text, with some estimates suggesting that sight words comprise up to 75% of children’s printed material[4].

The concept of sight words comes from the “whole language” approach to reading[5], where the focus is on understanding the meaning of a word, sentence, or paragraph without needing to decode or sound out each word. This contrasts with the phonics approach[6], which emphasizes the connection between sounds and their corresponding written symbols.

Some examples of sight words in English include ‘the’, ‘and’, ‘is’, ‘it’, ‘an’, ‘in’, ‘you’, ‘I’, ‘to’, and ‘that’. It’s important for beginning readers to learn and recognize these words instantly because it improves their reading speed and comprehension. Many educators use tools like flashcards and repetitive reading exercises to help students memorize sight words.

How Do Children Learn to Read Words by Sight?

Drawing on the research by Ehri (2005)[7], the core of learning sight words lies in a connection-forming process, where children associate the spellings of written words with their pronunciations and meanings, building what is known as graphophonemic awareness (i.e. the ability to “match up graphemes to phonemes within individual words”, Ehri, & Soffer, 1999)[8].

Contrary to the belief that children memorize the shapes or visual features of words, Ehri contends, it is the connection between letters in the word’s spelling and sounds in its pronunciation that forms the basis of sight-word learning. This is due to the inadequacy of visual-semantic connections to explain how words are quickly encoded in memory and how skilled readers can recognize a plethora of words instantly and accurately.

Therefore, learning to decode the written word comprises children’s understanding of the alphabetic system, including grapheme-phoneme relations (the relationship between written symbols and their associated sounds), phonemic awareness (the ability to discern separate sounds or phonemes in pronunciations), and knowledge of recurring spelling patterns across different words.

When learning a sight word, children look at the spelling, pronounce the word, identify separate phonemes in the pronunciation, and recognize how the graphemes correspond to phonemes in the word. Reading the word several times strengthens these connections, enabling them to read the word by sight. This approach, always according to Ehri, helps explain why semantic errors (like reading “pupil” as “student”) are relatively rare among skilled readers.

Are sight words only learned by sight?

The term “sight words” suggests that these words are learned purely through visual recognition. However, effective sight word learning actually goes beyond simple visual memorization [7]. Multiple methods that tap into various cognitive processes can be used to learn sight words, including phonemic awareness, understanding the connection between letters and sounds (grapheme-phoneme correspondence), and contextual learning.

Phonemic awareness[9] involves recognizing and manipulating the individual sounds or phonemes in words. Even though some sight words do not follow standard phonetic rules, children can still use their phonemic awareness skills to help learn these words.

Grapheme-phoneme correspondence [10] is the understanding of how letters or groups of letters represent the sounds of a language. Even with irregular sight words, there may still be portions of the word where standard grapheme-phoneme rules apply.

Contextual learning[11], such as seeing the word used in a sentence, can also help children understand and remember sight words. Being able to associate a word with its meaning can make the word easier to remember.

So while the name “sight words” might imply that these words are learned solely through visual recognition, effective instruction and learning often incorporate a variety of strategies and skills.

Tips for Learning Sight Words

Here are some practical tips for learning sight words more effectively:

Multi-sensory Methods: Use multi-sensory techniques that engage sight, sound, and touch. For example, trace letters in sand or with play-dough while saying the word out loud.

Repeated Exposure: Regular and repeated exposure to sight words can reinforce memory. Read texts that contain sight words frequently and practice them in various contexts.

Flashcards: Use flashcards to review sight words. Remember to use them as part of a broader strategy that includes phonics and context-based learning, not just memorization.

Group Similar Words: Group sight words with similar patterns together. This can help children recognize common components and better remember the words.

Contextual Learning: Learn sight words in the context of sentences and stories, not just in isolation. Understanding how a word is used can help solidify its meaning and recognition.

Make It Fun: Use games and activities to make learning sight words fun. This can include bingo, memory games, word searches, and storytelling games.

Daily Practice: Practice sight words every day. Short, regular practice sessions are often more effective than less frequent, longer sessions.

Use Technology: There are many apps and online games that can help make learning sight words fun and interactive.

Write It Out: Have children write out sight words. The act of writing the word can reinforce memory.

Slow and Steady: Don’t rush to introduce a lot of words at once. Start with a few words, and once those are mastered, gradually introduce more.

Instructional Strategies for Teaching Sight Words

Rawlins, A., & Invernizzi’s (2019) research[12] recommends several instructional strategies for teaching sight words effectively. These include:

Contextual Analysis: Rawlins & Invernizzi underscores the significance of deriving sight words from familiar texts. This counters the common practice of rote drill with flashcards, which she finds ineffective due to the lack of context and sound-to-spelling analysis. Teaching sight words in isolation that have been extracted from familiar texts is crucial for graphophonemic (letter-sound) analysis.

Cyclic Analysis: After taking familiar words out of their context and learning how to analyze them graphophonemically, students are encouraged to find similar words in the texts. These words are then also extracted and analyzed in isolation. This continuous cycle of analysis helps make words ‘stick.’

Individualized Instruction: Instructional activities should vary depending on the student’s level of word knowledge. Not every student is ready for more complex words, and some may still be distinguishing between letters and words. Thus, Rawlins & Invernizzi argue that teachers should help each student build a unique early reading vocabulary that matches their level of knowledge.

Assessment Through Spelling Attempts: Assessing word knowledge through early spelling attempts can provide valuable insight into a student’s progress. As young students’ earliest spelling attempts evolve, they follow a developmental trajectory that can be matched to a series of suitable instructional activities to build sight word knowledge.

Progressive Learning: At each stage of the learning process, activities should build on the previous stage, pushing students into a deeper analysis of words. This progressive learning approach ensures that students continuously grow their understanding and mastery of sight words.

In summary, Rawlins & Invernizzi’ s research advocates a more thoughtful and individualized approach to sight word instruction that revolves around contextual analysis, cyclic teaching, individualized instruction, assessment through spelling attempts, and progressive learning. This approach encourages deeper understanding and longer-term retention of sight words.

Activities for teaching sight words

Here are some creative and engaging activities to assist with teaching sight words:

Sight Word Bingo: Create a bingo card with sight words instead of numbers. This game can be adapted for different levels of learners by using different sets of words.

Flashlight Find: Turn off the lights and give the child a flashlight. Call out sight words written on flashcards or posted around the room for them to find with their flashlight.

Sight Word Hunt: Hide sight words around the room or outside and have children hunt for them.

Sight Word Hopscotch: Create a hopscotch grid with chalk, but instead of numbers, write sight words in the squares. As they jump to each square, have children read the word aloud.

Sight Word Swat: Tape sight words on a wall or a board. Call out a word and have the child swat it with a fly swatter.

Rainbow Writing: Have the child write each sight word in pencil and then trace over it with various colors of crayon or marker, creating a rainbow effect.

Sight Word Memory Game: Create pairs of sight word cards. Lay the cards face down and take turns flipping two at a time to find matches.

Build with Magnetic Letters: Have students use magnetic letters to build sight words on a cookie sheet or magnetic board.

Sight Word Storytelling: Encourage children to create stories using sight words. This can help them understand and remember the words better.

Word Wall: Create a word wall in your classroom or home where you add new sight words as they are learned. The wall provides a visual reference for children to review and practice sight words.

Final thoughts

As we draw this exploration of sight words to a close, it’s clear that these crucial components of our language play an invaluable role in early literacy development. Their mastery is more than rote memorization; it’s a process of building neural connections that foster automatic recognition, ultimately enhancing reading fluency and comprehension.

Through research-based strategies, both teachers and parents can effectively support learners on their sight word journey. With an understanding of these words’ dual definitions, the implementation of strategic teaching methods, and the incorporation of engaging activities, we can truly empower learners, fostering their love for reading.

In the end, the successful acquisition of sight words is a stepping stone towards a larger goal: enabling children to focus less on decoding individual words and more on understanding and enjoying the beautiful narratives and vast knowledge that lie within our books.


Murray, B. A., McIlwain, M. J., Wang, C., Murray, G., & Finley, S. (2019). How do beginners learn to read irregular words as sight words? Journal of Research in Reading, 42(1), 123–136. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9817.12250

Ehri, L.C. (1998). Grapheme-phoneme knowledge is essential for learning to read words in English. In J.L. Metsala & L.C. Ehri (Eds.), Word recognition in beginning literacy, (pp. 3–40). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Just, M.A. & Carpenter, P.A. (1987). The psychology of reading and language comprehension. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Kear, D. J., & Gladhart, M. A. (1983). Comparative Study to Identify High-Frequency Words in Printed Materials. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 57(3), 807–810. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.1983.57.3.807

Anderson, G. S. (1984). A whole language approach to reading. University Press of America.

Donat, D. J. (2003). Reading their way : a balance of phonics and whole language. Scarecrow Press.

Ehri, L. C. (2005). Learning to Read Words: Theory, Findings, and Issues. Scientific Studies of Reading, 9(2), 167–188.

Ehri, L. C., & Soffer, A. G. (1999). Graphophonemic awareness: Development in elementary students. Scientific Studies of Reading, 3(1), 1–30. https://doi.org/10.1207/s1532799xssr0301_1

Adams, M. J. (1998). Phonemic awareness in young children : a classroom curriculum. P.H. Brookes.

Phoneme-Grapheme Correspondences, Literacy Institute, University of Florida,

Susan, I. (2000). Contextual Learning in Adult Education. Eric Publications.

Rawlins, A., & Invernizzi, M. (2019). Reconceptualizing Sight Words: Building an Early Reading Vocabulary. The Reading Teacher, 72(6), 711–719. https://www.jstor.org/stable/26801673

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